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Electric losses: information on research and verification of actual consumption and losses of electricity.
The electrical dispersions they consist in the loss of electrical charge by a poorly insulated charged conductor.
In case ofelectrical leaks in the housethe inefficiency of theelectrical system, in other words there are electricity losses which then weigh on the electricity bill which will become irremediably high.
The law states that thedomestic electrical systemmust be equipped with aprotection system,the differential switch, better known as "life-saving ". This switch automatically suspends the flow of electricity in the home system when it detects aelectrical leakage. Due to thedifferential switch, the first symptom ofelectrical dispersionsit is precisely the interruption of the electricity supply by the meter (the power goes out and you have to reactivate it from the central meter).
Electric losses, the causes
What are the causes of electrical leakage in the home?Among the most common causes (and even more painless from a repair point of view) is the presence of badly connected, bare electrical cables, faulty switches or sockets.
If you have recently purchased an appliance or simply mounted a new chandelier, make sure that the connection is made properly. Typically, the causes ofelectrical dispersionsare related to:
- a system that is too dated, neglected and / or worn
- electrical system without grounding
- an electrical system that does not comply with the law
- defective lifesaving device
- electrical cables that are poorly connected or that have not been tightened well
- exposed electrical cables
- defective sockets, switches, diverters or “trespine”
- problems in the insulation of the system
- electrical appliance failure (electrical leaks from the refrigerator or oven are very common).
Verification of electrical leaks
Theresearch for electrical dispersionsit is possible using two instruments, the digital multimeter or the current clamp. In this article we will see how to do theverificationof theelectrical dispersionsusing a digital multimeter.
This tool is easy to use, safe and can be bought with little money: on Amazon, an intuitive and ready-to-use digital multimeter is offered at a price of 18.04 euros with free shipping. To use the multimeter just indicated you can follow the instructions listed here:
- Access the electrical panel of the house and locate the levers of the differential and thermal protection for the protection of the cables.
- Press the button on the RCD differential TEST to lower the first lever, then lower the second thermal lever. This procedure must be performed without lowering the sockets and lighting levers.
- Disconnect all users from the sockets and close any bipolar, switches / light switches, in other words, disconnect any electrical appliance in your home.
- Disconnect the plug of the water heater.
- Access the electrical panel again and remove the front mask using a Phillips screwdriver.
- From the thermal you have to disconnect the phase load by means of a screwdriver.
- Take your Digital Multimeter shown above.
- Plug the black cable into the portCOM Black.
- Plug the red wire into the port10A or20A.
- Move the selector to the symbol10A or20A.
- In the display of the digital multimeter there must be the symbol ~ alternating current.
- Connect the tester in series by connecting the black test leadCOM on the phase cable of the home load and then connect the red test lead directly to the thermal.
- At this point, allow the electrical connection by first lifting the differential lever of the lifesaver and then the lever of the thermal.
- Wait a few seconds for the tester to complete its reading.
The reading will tell you if you are at homelosses of electricity. There are two hypotheses:
If everything is well insulated, you should read a value of on the digital multimeter's display00.00 with zero dispersion. In case of thermal dispersions you will need to equip yourself with an Aperometric Forceps to track down the dispersion of the house. Like the digital multimeter, the Aperometric Clamp is also easy to use and accessible, good models can be purchased for 15 euros.
If the digital multimeter reads 00.00 and you can't explain why the meter jumps and why the bills are so high… suppose someone could literally steal your electricity. For all information, please refer to the page "theft of electricity “.