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With the termhydroponicswe mean a system of growing plants on liquid soil. Plants grown with the technique ofhydroponicsthey are placed on a growing medium consisting of a solution containing all the essential elements in the right proportions.
Although many people aspire to set up one hydroponic cultivation at home, perhaps with the help of a diy kit, let's say immediately that the hydroponic system was born above all for research purposes. The technique hydroponicsit allows, in fact, to study the effects of the lack of specific nutrients on growth and metabolism, cultivating plants on substrates lacking or lacking one or more elements.
What it takes to set up onehydroponics?
- A plexiglass container
- Solutions with nutrients for plants
- Black plastic bags
- Funnel to add water and nutrients
- Pipe to introduce air
- Dacron balls
In thehydroponics,Plexiglass containers lined with black paper are generally used to protect the roots from light and to prevent the possible growth of algae in the culture medium.
The roots are also suitably ventilated, the pH of the culture liquid is controlled and the culture liquid itself must be changed often to avoid the accumulation of toxic substances and the uncontrolled growth of bacteria.
Inhydroponicsdifferent nutritional solutions are used, the most used are those of Knop, Sach and even more commonly the solution of Hoagland, so called from the name of their creators. The modified Hoagland medium is used for a large number ofhydroponic cultivation, the solution contains plant nutrients in these quantities:
- Calcium in a quantity of 103 mg / L
- Nitrogen in a quantity of 105 mg / L
- Potassium in a quantity of 118 mg / L
- Sulfur in a quantity of 33 mg / L
- Magnesium in a quantity of 25 mg / L
- Phosphorus in a quantity of 15 mg / L
- Iron in a quantity of 10 mg / L
- Boron in a quantity of 0.25 mg / L
- Manganese in a quantity of 0.25 mg / L
- Zinc in a quantity of 0.025 mg / L
- Copper in a quantity of 0.01 mg / L
- Molybdenum in a quantity of 0.0052 mg / L
As is evident, observing the quantities of nutrients present in a modified Hoagland solution, it is noted that the concentrations of the individual elements are far higher than those one would expect to find in a common soil. Inhydroponicsnutrients are present in excess, without ever becoming limiting for growth but not in quantities too high to become toxic. To control the pH of the culture medium, nitrogen is administered both in the form of ammonium (protonated NH4) and as nitrate (NO3 - negatively charged).
- Liquid medium, if suitably stirred, represents a more homogeneous solution than that present in solid medium. Plants have available all the micro and macro nutrients essential for the productivity of cultivation. This is why thehydroponic cultivationthey are widely used in the agri-food sector.
- Hydroponics is particularly useful for conducting physiological investigations on roots, which are difficult to conduct in solid soil.
- Hydroponics is useful for studying and understanding the symptoms of various nutritional deficiencies in different plant species.
In the pictures:
1) An industrial cultivation with hydroponic technique
2) A home kit to set up a hydroponic cultivation at home
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