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The phytodepuration of water


Therephytoremediationit is a process ofnatural purificationof waste water (domestic discharges, industrial, agricultural spills ...) which focuses on the principle ofself-purificationtypical of aquatic environments.

In this article we will focus on what is thephytodepuration of waterwhich is definitely the practicephytodepurativebest known but not the only one! In naturalistic engineering, phytodepuration of the soil and air is used.

Thanks to phytoremediation of soils it is possible to implement a bioremediation eliminating metals and metalloids, pesticides, solvents, petroleum and derivatives, radioisotopes, explosives and other contaminants. With the phytoremediation of the air it is possible to act on closed environments; the constructed air purification process is based on a NASA research called the Wolverton Law Project.

Constructed wetland - meaning
Constructed wetlandsis a term used to describe environmental treatment through the use of plants.

The etymology of the word from "phito = plant "it could suggest that the plants themselves are the main actors of the purification process but this is not the case. Plants create the suitable habitat for the growth of the bacterial flora necessary to implement thebiological purification. This is why thephytodepurationit is an environmental bioremediation process with microorganisms.

Constructed water purification
The use of thephytoremediationfor the treatment ofwaste waterit has become very popular worldwide. On the basis of the prevailing form of life of the aquatic plants used, we can have a first classification of the techniques of phytoremediation:

  • Microfite constructed wetlands systems
    Bioremediation with microorganisms, in this case unicellular algae
  • Macrophyte constructed wetlands systems
    Bioremediation with higher plants, floating aquatic plants
  • Constructed wetlands systems with submerged rooted macrophytes
    Bioremediation with superior plants that develop entirely under water
  • Constructed wetlands systems with emerging rooted macrophytes
    Bioremediation with plants that also develop on the surface

A further classification of systems ofphytodepuration of waterdepends on the type of hydraulic path of thewaste water. In the domestic environment, the most used system is the one with emerging rooted macrophytes, better if the water flow is submerged as the growth medium, in submerged flow constructed wetlands systems and with rooted macrophytes, provides a greater contact surface for the responsible microorganisms of purification processes.

In submerged flow systems, the risk of the onset of bad smells and the development of insects is very limited, also for this reason this system has spread near urban centers and with an optimal integration into the surrounding environment.

To make a plant ofphytodepuration of waterCareful planning and preparation of the growth substrate and the bed that will accommodate the tanks is required. The waste water, before entering the systemphytodepurationthey must be "pre-treated" (through screening, imhoff pit, oil separators ...) in order to avoid blockages in the filter beds.



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